Battery Comparison: LiFePO4, Li-Ion and Lead/Acid

How is it possible that a lithium battery, with a capacity (Ah = ampere-hour) which is about 1/3 in comparison with an equivalent lead/acid battery, notheless has a cranking power (CA = Cranking Ampere) which is 50% higher than lead/acid batteries?
To understand these data, reported in the tables and in the graph, we need to explain the concepts of energy density (Wh/L) and maximum discharge current. LiFePO4 batteries have indeed an energy density which is up to five times higher than equivalent lead/acid batteries. As a result, for the same volume occupied, a lithium battery will have five times the energy of an equivalent lead/acid battery. Lithium Ion batteries (Li-Ion or LiCo) have a cranking power which is even higher, but they can't ensure the same safety level for Automotive use as LiFePO4 batteries.
Moreover, the maximum discharge current of a lithium battery is 50C, that means fifty times the battery capacity, over three times than lead/acid batteries.
Therefore, if a motorcycle needs a cranking amperage (CA) of 300 A, using a traditional lead/acid battery you would need a battery with at least a capacity of 20 Ah (15x20), while you can use a lithium battery with a capacity of only 4 Ah (50x4).
Tipo de bateria Ácido/
Gel
LiCo (Cobalto
de Lítio) /
Li-Ion
LiFePO4
BC LITHIUM
Voltagem nominal [V] 2.1 3.6/3.7 3.2
Densidade de energia [Wh/L] Médio Muito alta Alta
Energia especifica [Wh/Kg] Médio Muito alta Alta
Max. corrente de descarga
(Rátio de descarga) [C]
15 N.D. 50
Segurança Fraca
(presença de vários
materiais nocivos)
Baixa
(Risco de fogo
ou explosão)
Excelente
(nenhum risco de
fogo/explosão)
Ciclos de vida > 400 > 500 > 2000
Amigas do
ambiente
Não Não SIM
BC LITHIUM
BATTERIES
Bateria
correspondente
ácido/gel
BC
LITHIUM
Capacidade
(Ah)
Bateria
ácido/gel
Capacidade
(Ah)
BC
LITHIUM
Peso
(Kg)
Bateria
ácido/gel
Peso
(Kg)
Redução
de peso
(Kg)
BC
LITHIUM
CA
(Amp)
Bateria
ácido/gel
CA
(Amp)
Aumento
de força
Cranking
Amps (%)
BCTX5L-FP-S YTX5L-BS 1.6 4.0 0.5 1.6 1.1 105 70 50%
BCTX7L-FP-S YTX7L-BS 2.0 6.0 0.6 2.3 1.7 160 85 88%
BCTX9-FP YTTX9-BS 3.0 8.0 0.8 2.5 1.7 180 120 50%
BCTZ10S-FP YTZ10S 4.0 8.6 0.8 3.2 2.4 240 150 60%
BCT12B-FP YT12B-BS 4.0 10.0 0.8 3.4 2.6 290 190 53%
BCTZ14S-FP-S YTZ14S 4.5 11.2 0.9 3.9 3.0 290 230 26%
BCTZ20HL-FP-S YTX20HL-BS 7.0 18.0 1.2 5.6 4.4 420 270 56%
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