Battery Comparison: LiFePO4, Li-Ion and Lead/Acid

How is it possible that a lithium battery, with a capacity (Ah = ampere-hour) which is about 1/3 in comparison with an equivalent lead/acid battery, notheless has a cranking power (CA = Cranking Ampere) which is 50% higher than lead/acid batteries?
To understand these data, reported in the tables and in the graph, we need to explain the concepts of energy density (Wh/L) and maximum discharge current. LiFePO4 batteries have indeed an energy density which is up to five times higher than equivalent lead/acid batteries. As a result, for the same volume occupied, a lithium battery will have five times the energy of an equivalent lead/acid battery. Lithium Ion batteries (Li-Ion or LiCo) have a cranking power which is even higher, but they can't ensure the same safety level for Automotive use as LiFePO4 batteries.
Moreover, the maximum discharge current of a lithium battery is 50C, that means fifty times the battery capacity, over three times than lead/acid batteries.
Therefore, if a motorcycle needs a cranking amperage (CA) of 300 A, using a traditional lead/acid battery you would need a battery with at least a capacity of 20 Ah (15x20), while you can use a lithium battery with a capacity of only 4 Ah (50x4).
Type of battery Lead/
Acid
LiCo (Lithium
Cobalt) /
Li-Ion
LiFePO4
BC LITHIUM
Nominal Voltage [V] 2.1 3.6/3.7 3.2
Energy Density [Wh/L] Medium Higher High
Specific Energy [Wh/Kg] Medium Higher High
Max. Discharge Current
(Discharge rate) [C]
15 N.D. 50
Safety Fair
(presence of
toxic materials)
Low
(risk of fire
and explosion)
Excellent
(no risk of
fire/explosion)
Life Cycles > 400 > 500 > 2000
Environmental
friendly
No No YES
BC LITHIUM
BATTERIES
Main Models
Correspondent
lead/acid
battery
BC
LITHIUM
Capacity
(Ah)
Lead/acid
battery
Capacity
(Ah)
BC
LITHIUM
Weight
(Kg)
Lead/acid
battery
Weight
(Kg)
Weight
reduction
(Kg)
BC
LITHIUM
CA
(Amp)
Lead/acid
battery
CA
(Amp)
Increase
Cranking
Amps (%)
BCTX5L-FP-S YTX5L-BS 1.6 4.0 0.5 1.6 1.1 105 70 50%
BCTX7L-FP-S YTX7L-BS 2.0 6.0 0.6 2.3 1.7 160 85 88%
BCTX9-FP YTTX9-BS 3.0 8.0 0.8 2.5 1.7 180 120 50%
BCTZ10S-FP YTZ10S 4.0 8.6 0.8 3.2 2.4 240 150 60%
BCT12B-FP YT12B-BS 5.0 10.0 1.1 3.4 2.3 300 190 58%
BCTZ14S-FP-S YTZ14S 4.5 11.2 0.9 3.9 3.0 290 230 26%
BCTX20H-FP-SQ YTX20HL-BS 7.0 18.0 1.4 5.6 4.2 420 270 56%
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